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Michelangelo Buonarroti

Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475, in Caprese, near Arezzo in Italy. Michelangelo was the second of six siblings. His father, Ludovico di Leonardo Buonarroti was the administrative chief of the Simoni region. Michelangelo and his family migrated to Florence. Michelangelo was given to a foster mother in Settignano, the little settlement of Florence, famous for its marble mining and processing. He lost his mother when he was six. His father did not want Michelangelo to be interested in art. Michelangelo convinced his father, and at the age of thirteen, he began to work as an apprentice to the studio of Domenico Ghirlandaio, one of the most famous wall painters in Florence. Michelangelo learned the foundations and sculptures of the fresco technique where the paint was applied on wet plaster. The main training was in the "drawing pattern" area. In the workshop of Ghirlandaio, he developed rapidly in the artistic sense. Although Michelangelo envisaged a three-year training period, he decided to concentrate on the sculpture. He left his education.

 

Michelangelo's during his childhood in Florence was in power with Lorenzo de’Medici. Lorenzo de’Medici had an ancient sculpture collection in the garden of San Marco Monastery. Lorenzo de’Medici had asked Ghirlandaio two students to work at his home. Fourteen-year-old Michelangelo and his friend Francesco Granacci had this privilege. Michelangelo was working under the supervision of Bertoldodi Giovanni, the student of Donatello from the sculpture team for the garden of Medici. Michelangelo has become one of the most loved and trusted painters by Lorenzo de’Medici. He was a permanent guest of the Medici's palace from Ghirlandaio's workshop. And so Lorenzo de’Medici became his first great patron. Michelangelo, the first three-year palace period, the work of the "Madonna of the Stairs" and "Battle of the Centaurs" made the marble relief.

 

After the death of Lorenzo de'Medici, in 1492, his son Piero passed to de Medici. Michelangelo's palace days are over. In 1494 he traveled to Bologna, where he became a guest for almost a year, next to the noble Gianfrancesco Aldovrandi. He received his first order from the public with the help of a co-worker Aldovrandi. The order was to equip the tomb of Saint Dominicus, the founder of the Dominican sect, with sculptures. He made three small "St. Petronius", "St. Proclus" and "Angel with Candlestick" sculptures for the tomb monument. These early grave figurines showed the typical stylistic features of Michelangelo, with strong, anatomically studied bodies and heavy, draped, fancy clothes. In 1496 he made his first trip to Rome. The effects of the ancient beauty of Roman art were clearly seen in the works of the sculptor. This effect became evident in his sculptures, muscular body structures and special interest in anatomy. Michelangelo's "Bacchus," which he describes as a drunken god of wine, and "Pietà", who portrays the time Jesus was removed from the cross, were his first two works in Rome.

 

In 1501 Michelangelo returned to Florence from Rome as a renowned, respected and successful artist. The Florentine rich city received a series of orders from nobles. Michelangelo's order, the two-circle relief, including the depiction of the "Virgin Mary" would be a study. This work was called "Tondo". (Tondo: A round picture or other work of art) In this period, He made the only Tondo-shaped single oil painting on the theme of "The Holy Family." In 1503, the Florence administration decided to build wall paintings in the large hall of the Palazzo Vecchio, which was used as a government building. The Palazzo Vecchio's large hall was planned to paint the city's historical subjects. The famous painter Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to make the fresco of the Battle of Milan, which took place in Anghiari, south of Florence in 1440. For other wall work, Michelangelo was commissioned to make the fresco of the Battle of Cassina, which took place in Anghiari, south of Florence in 1364. Thus, two of the most famous artists of the period were assigned to work in the same space. Both were unable to complete their work. Then Michelangelo took the order of the statue of the splendid "David". The artist completed the giant four-meter-long giant "David" statue in 1504. This magnificent statue was the most important order of Michelangelo. Since antiquity, in this dimension, there was not a alone sculpture. The statue of "David" was portrayed in Florence as very different from all the works that had ever been done.

 

In 1505, Pope II. Julius invited Michelangelo to Rome and gave him the task of building a large funerary monument. The other orders of the Pope would lead to the suspension of the monumental tomb. In 1508, he commissioned Michelangelo to do the ceiling frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. More than 500 square meters of gigantic ceilings, which the Archbishops used as a meeting hall, Michelangelo finished alone in about four years. With the death of Pope II. Julius in 1513, the construction of the monumental tomb was on the agenda again. Michelangelo was able to complete the statue of “Moses”, the main figure in 1516, but the tomb monument was completed in 1545, 32 years after the death of Pope II. Julius.

 

Michelangelo carried out his first architectural work in his hometown of Florence by order of the Papacy. In 1513, the Pope X.Leo elected was planning new arrangements for the Church of San Lorenzo with his successor, VII. Klemens. San Lorenzo Church was close to the palace of the Medicis. Michelangelo was first given the task of building the facade of the Church of San Lorenzo. The artist ceased construction of facade and started working on the tomb chapel and library of the Medicis church complex. The staircase project in the entrance hall of the library was completed by architect Bartolomeo Ammannati in accordance with the design of Michelangelo. For the other members of the Medici family, the construction of the New Cemetery was planned in front of the Old Cemetery in San Lorenzo. On the sidewalls, the graves of Lorenzo de’Medici and his brother Giuliano Dei Medici were made. The graves of Lorenzo and Giuliano were opposite each other. In the tomb, there were figures of Lorenzo and Giuliano and two female and two male figures representing the four times of the day as on the sarcophagus. On the tomb of Giuliano, in the Night and the Daytime, Lorenzo's tomb had figures representing Dawn and Evening. The center of the grave complex was "Medici Madonna". Just like Michelangelo's many works, the New Cemetery could not be completed.

 

After his sculptures for the Medici Chapel, in 1534, Michelangelo moved to Rome where to spend the last thirty years of his life. After the death of VII.Klemens, III. Paulus replaced VII. Klemens. III. Paulus put Michelangelo into service immediately. He asked Michelangelo to paint the altar of the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo started the "The Last Judgment" scene in 1536, covering the entire altar wall. He completed his wall painting in 1541. For Pope III. Paulus, he painted two large stage paintings of the Paolina Chapel. Michelangelo made two large frescoes on the two opposite sidewalls of the chapel, including sections of Jesus' apostles, Paulus and Petrus's life. Michelangelo was seventy-five years old when he painted his second mural and had to take frequent breaks because of his illness.

 

In his final years, Michelangelo focused on architecture. The artist had important duties from Pope III. Paulus. He had designed a new facade without changing the position of the Senate and Conservatory Palaces in the Kapitol area. He made a third palace project on the left side in provisions to the Conservatory Palace. Most of the projects were completed after his death, as did most of Michelangelo's architectural work. In his work on the completion of the San Pietro Cathedral from Pope III. Paulus, Michelangelo concentrated his attention on the dome in particular and designed the dome of the building. Michelangelo remained responsible for this project until his death.

 

Michelangelo died in Rome on February 18, 1564, before he reached the age of 89.

 

Bibliography;

Grömling, A., (2005). Michelangelo, Literatür Yayıncılık, İstanbul.

Spence, D., (2012). Büyük Ressamlar Michelangelo, İkinci Basım, Koleksiyon Yayıncılık, İstanbul.

Erdoğan, C.E., (2015). Sanatın Büyük Ustaları Michelangelo, Birinci Baskı , Hayalperest Yayınevi, İstanbul.

Lunday, E., (2013). Büyük Sanatçıların Gizli Hayatları, Beşinci Baskı, Domingo Yayınevi, İstanbul.

Vasari, G., (2013). Sanatçıların Hayat Hikayeleri, Birinci Baskı, Sel Yayıncılık, İstanbul.

Turani, A., (2010). Dünya Sanat Tarihi, On Dördüncü Baskı, Remzi Kitabevi, İstanbul.

1475 He was born on 6 March in Toscana, Arezzo-Caprese, Italy.

 

1481 His mother died.

 

1488 Michelangelo, began his apprenticeship in the studio of the fresco painter Domenico Ghirlandaio in Florence.

 

1489-90 Lorenzo de’Medici's started working in the Garden. His first marble reliefs were "Madonna of the Stairs" and "Battle of the Centaurs".

 

1492 Lorenzo is dead. Michelangelo returned to his father's house. Piero came to Medici Palace again at the invitation of De'Medici.

 

1494-95 He went to Bologna. He made three small sculptures for the monument to San Domenico: "St. Petronius", "St. Proculus" and "Angel with Candlestick".

 

1495 He returned to Florence.

 

1496 He made his first trip to Rome. In Rome, he created his first works, "Bacchus" and "Pietà".

 

1501 He returned to Florence. He took the order of the statue of "David".

 

1504 He finished the statue of "David". The Municipality undertook the task of painting a large mural of the "Battle of Cascina" in the Grand Assembly Hall.

 

1505 Michelangelo went to Rome at the invitation of Pope II. Julius. In order to select the appropriate marble for the grave, he spent eight months in the quarries in Carrara.

 

1506 He returned to Florence after Pope II. Julius gave up his grave project.

 

1508 In Rome, he took on the job of decorating the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel from Pope II. Julius.

 

1512 He finished the ceiling frescoes of the Sistine Chapel.

 

1513 Pope II. Julius is dead. The artist worked on an unfinished tomb monument. He started to work on "Moses" and "The Rebellious Slave" statues.

 

1516 Pope X. Leo asked him to design the façade of the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence.

 

1517-20 He was found in Carrara and Pietrasanta to find suitable marbles for Pope II. Julius's tomb monument and the San Lorenzo Church façade. San Lorenzo Church signed an agreement. Canceled in 1520.

 

1521 He started the Medici Chapel work.

 

1524 He began his studies of the Medici chapels and the library at the San Lorenzo Church.

 

1527-30 He left the Medici chapel and started the job of strengthening the walls of Florence. He left Florasa in 1529. In 1530 he returned to the work of the Medici Chapel.

 

1534 His father died; He settled in Rome.

 

1535 Pope III. Paulus appointed him the architect of the Vatican, a sculptor, and a painter.

 

1536 He started the fresco "The Last Judgment" in the Sistine Chapel.

 

1538 Michelangelo made the "Brutus" bust by Donato Gianotti as a gift to Niccolò Ridorfi.

 

1541 "The Last Judgment" fresco was opened to visitors.

 

1543-45 He made the fresco "The Conversion of Saul" for the Paoline Chapel. In 1545, the monument of Pope II. Julius was placed in Rome's San Pietro in Vincoli. He made figures of "Moses", "Leah" and "Rachel" in the lower section of the tomb only.

 

1547 Pope III. Paulus was appointed chief architect of the San Pietro Basilica for the construction of the dome.

 

1550 He finished the frescoes in the Paolina Chapel.

 

1555 The servant and his aide, Francesco Urbino, died.

 

1564 He died on February 18 at his house in Rome. He was buried in the Church of Santa Croce in Florence. Before his death, he was working on the Pietre of Rondanini.

Latest Architectural Works - Michelangelo Buonarroti

In 1546 Michelangelo was commissioned to complete the construction of the family mansion by Pope Paulus III, a descendant of Farnese. After the death of the former architect Antonio da Sangallo, Pope Paul III asked Michelangelo to take on the work and use his own designs.

First Architectural Works - Michelangelo Buonarroti

Michelangelo (1475-1564) carried out his first architectural work in his hometown of Florence by order of the Papacy. In 1513 Giovanni' de Medici "Pope Leo X" was elected Pope by name. Together with his niece Giulio, (he will later become the "Klemens VII" as Pope.), he was making big plans for the Basilica of San Lorenzo, a complete building complex with the monastery, library, and chapel of the Medicis in Florence. The first project was the task of building a facade in the church. After this plan was canceled, the Medicis worked on the tomb chapel and library (Biblioteca Laurenziana) in the church complex.

The Last Judgment - Michelangelo

Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II to make the ceiling frescoes of the chapel and completed this work, which took years, in 1512. Paulus III, who became pope in 1534, commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Last Judgment (Armageddon) themed painting on the altar wall of the chapel. It would be a work depicting the Day of Judgment, which, according to Christian beliefs, is thought to occur at the end of the world and that the Prophet Jesus will judge the living and the dead...

The Sistine Chapel Ceiling Frescoes - Michelangelo Buonarroti

The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican was built by Pope SixtusIV in the 1470s. The holy place was used as a gathering place for the archbishops to choose and celebrate, especially the new Pope. In 1508, Pope Julius II had Michelangelo commissioned the ceiling frescoes of the chapel. Michelangelo, who considers himself a sculptor rather than a painter, unintentionally accepted the job. The ceiling of the chapel, which is about 13,5 meters high, was covered with a barrel vault. The length of the thin, tall ceiling, where Michelangelo would work, was about 14 meters wide and 41 meters long.